Archive Lab work | archaeometallurgy
Dec 17 2014

Pimp your microscope – automatic objective lens detection

Bastian Asmus

EPIPOL16QR..for any  microscope you might happen to work with. During your microscopy sessions, did you ever wish for less of the dull work, such as noting meta data, contrast method, sample id, photo no or image width? Well – I did.

I did wish for a long time to have a way that my microscope and my camera would speak to each other whenever I change objectives. I am working with Zeiss Universal microscope, mostly with reflected polarising light, i.e. there is no objective revolver. I have to change the objectives individually, which of course, all has to do with the ability to centre the objective for certain steps in polarising microscopy.

To make a long story short: the old days where I have to sit there with a notepad and have to write down all these dull informations are over! From now on my camera, or rather my computer registers any change of my microscope objective and adds this information to my micrographs automatically.

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Jan 27 2014

how to do slag microscopy – sample polishing

Bastian Asmus

sample polishing

Today is all about sample polishing. Welcome to part six of the slag microscopy series.

We need to polish our samples for polarising reflective light microscopy. A perfectly polished section is a joy to work with. More importantly it allows you to gather the optimum amount of information from your sample. This is true for optical microscopy, and even more so for electron microscopy with energy or wavelength dispersive spectrometry.

For this we need:

  • polishing cloth
  • polishing agents
  • polishing lubricant
  • sample polisher/grinder

Polishing cloth

Polishing cloth holds the polishing agents which are being used for polishing. There is a wide variety of different polishing cloths around: They are woven or napped textiles and differ in hardness. they also differ in their material. This does have significant influence on the sample polishing results: E.g. if the cloth is too soft, it is likely to create a strong relief. For slag I have had very good results with silk cloths for the final polishing step. For metals and ceramics I had  good polishing results with short napped discs.

Polishing agents and lubrication

There is no definite answer as to where polishing begins and where lapping ends, but generally we speak of polishing, when the polishing agents are smaller than 10 microns. Sample polishing is done on polishing cloth, by a polishing agent and polishing lubricant. Most common polishing agents are corundum and diamonds

Sample polishing

For manual sample polishing move the sample in figure eight fashion across the polishing cloth. You can also use a star like motion, however this is difficult  with polishing discs smaller than 300 mm diameter.

Polishing needs to remove all previous traces of grinding or lapping. Make regular checks with your stereo microscope to minimise your preparation time. As with lapping the ratio of diamonds to lubricant is essential for the polishing success. Use too much lubrication and the samples will only skid across the polishing disc. Use too little and you may end up damaging your polishing cloth.

If you start with a new polishing cloth, make sure to note the grain size on the metal platen. If you prepare a lot of different materials, it might also be a good idea to note the materials you wish to polish on the platen.In this series I am using diamonds of three and one microns grain size. Very seldom I do use a quarter micron as well.

Make sure to inspect the section before and after polishing. Put three to four 1 cm long strips of 3 micron diamond paste on the polishing cloth, rub them into the cloth, so that no diamond paste protrudes from the cloth. Add a few squirts of polishing lubricant. There is enough lubrication on your finger becomes slightly glossy when you touch the disc. Start the polisher, move the sample in a figure eight fashion across the polishing disc. There is no need to check the progress within the first three to five minutes.

For checking up on the polishing progress, place the cleaned sample under a reflected light microscope as well. I have an old one for this purpose in the sectioning lab. Sections should be clean, because abrasive diamond residues and optical instruments should not be mixed.

Before you continue to polish the section with the next finer diamond abrasive, make extra sure to have cleaned the sample in a fresh bath of IMS in the ultra-sonic cleaner. Rinse samples with IMS before putting them onto the new polishing disc. A single 3 micron diamond will leave your sample badly scratched. Repeat all polishing steps with the finder abrasive.

Contamination is a problem

A word of caution: Utmost care must be taken to keep polishing cloths and polishing agents of different grain sizes  separate! Cleaning the polishing machines is essential. Wash your hands and wash them often! I cannot stress this point enough. Careless work with polishing agents of different grain sizes will only lead to frustration.

Under no circumstances may the cloths be stored in a way that they touch each other. Do not leave them to dry in a manner that water drops from one cloth onto an other. If you use storing cabinet for polishing discs, make sure that the larger grain sizes are below the finer grain sizes.

If your disc is contaminated, there are three possibilities:

  1. exchange the cloth
  2. rinse the cloth with a lot of water and hope the contamination is removed
  3. Polish the section with the contamination, take images form non-scratched areas


  • clean your hands, sections and tools before and after use, especially if you work in a bigger lab: you never know how thoroughly the previous user left the place
  • Clean the sample before you place it anywhere, otherwise you are spreading diamonds around the lab
  • three to four 1 cm strips of diamond paste are enough for polishing a section
  • massage diamond paste and lubricant into the polishing cloth
  • polish by moving the section in a figure eight fashion across the cloth
  • inspect polishing progress with a microscope
  • clean all tools, machines and sections with IMS

That’s it for now. Be sure to be back for the next instalment, where we are going to explore the microscope.

Jan 26 2014

how to do slag microscopy – sample lapping

Bastian Asmus


These are the main modes of material removal from a sample.

This is part five of the series on slag microscopy and deals with sample lapping. In the lapping process samples are also ground, but with fine abrasive powders. The abrasive grains can roll between the sample surface and the lapping disc. The section receives a dull finish. Lapping is especially effective in maintaining the flatness of the samples and and edge definition of samples consisting of composite materials with hard and soft components .

For this we need:

  • lapping disc or a 20 by 30 cm piece of 8 mm flat glass
  • abrasive SiC powder, e.g. FEPA F800 (ca 6.5 microns)

Sample lapping?

I found that one lapping step between grinding and polishing resulted in better polished sections. It allows allows you to stop grinding after paper grit 1200. This step is very simple to do manually and does not take long:

Squirt a smallish amount of water on your glass lapping plate. Put a small amount, e.g. half a teaspoon,  of F800 SiC powder near the water puddle. Now use the sample to draw in some SiC powder into the water and move the sample block in a figure eight motion across the glass plate, drawing in more abrasives as you go along. During lapping the abrasive grains will break down to smaller particles and produce a finer and finer surface. You can see this effect when compare the sample surface that was lapped with fresh abrasive with one that was lapped with old abrasive that was used for a longer period of time. The surface lapped with the old abrasive will be finer.

Lapping does remove less material than grinding. You can,, however, determine the material removal rate by the ratio water to abrasive powder, i.e. the viscosity of the lubricant film. The thicker the film, the less material is removed. If your film gets too thick, the sample will only slip across the plate. If it too thin the sample will get stuck on your plate due to strong adhesive forces.

You will develop a feeling for this process rather quickly. You can also hear it, if material is removed or not…


  • Lapping is a simple, optional step
  • it may shorten prep time, because you do not need to use the finest grinding steps
  • maintains flatness and edge definition
  • removes linear scratches resulting from grinding


Elssner, G., Hoven, H., Kiessler, G., & Wellner, P. (1999). Ceramics and ceramic composites: materialographic preparation. Elsevier.